Ok, thanks for clarifying.
I’m happy to address the points you made.
Firstly, I generally find that when asking a question about OS or software issues, it’s best to keep the initial enquiry short. Very long questions, in my experience, are less likely to be read or responded to. Then, if someone is generous enough with their time to try to help, they might suggest further needed information, which you did, and which I provided
With regard to the -x ( --one-file-system ) parameter, I do indeed know what that means. It is in the restic-backup man page. With new software, I really do RTFM.
I used it because I often mount volumes (e.g. usb memory sticks) within my / or /home directories. When a snapshot is made, it carries over those mountpoints to the snap. I don’t want mounted volumes to be included in the backup, hence the “-x”.
Yes, I could use exclude commands. But with things like usb sticks, they come and go, and I don’t really want to remember to change the exclude file for restic each time I change them.
Furthermore, I think restic’s behaviour is odd. If I create a snapshot, then copy it with “rsync -ax”, where the -x in rsync is described just the same as it is in restic, all behaves as I would have expected. /mnt/homesnap/ and all its contents are copied exactly, without the mounted volumes. I assumed (wrongly) that restic would behave similarly.
And yet. As I said in earlier posts, when I examined the restic repository, the size would indicate that my desired files were actually being backed up. So did the time it took to perform the backup. Restic seemed to be backing up the way I expected, but neither “restic ls” nor “restic restore” was able to see beyond the base directory. I’d go so far as to think that’s more like a bug than a feature, but of course I’m not a restic guru, so there may be a valid reason for that behaviour. If so, it probably needs a few more clues in the man page.
I hope that clarifies my thinking. I’m still wondering how to exclude mounted volumes from the backups without constantly editing the exclude files.